The Fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan

The so called Nuremberg Map of Temixtitlan, printed to accompany the publication of Hernan Cortez Second Letter to the King in 1524, JCB Library (07128). The left side depicts the Gulf of Mexico, including landmarks known to European coastal navigators. The right side, although represented following European conventions, must have been based on an indigenous cartographic source (or sources). See Mundy (2015) for more details, particularly her interpretation of the site of Culhuacán, the bulge noticeable on the left of the lake. A Habsburg flag flies on the town of Coyoacán, the provisional seat of government. Although the City was temporarily abandoned after the siege, the map is meant to depict the city before the arrival of the Spaniards. Notice the depiction of human activity in the lake, the aqueduct bringing fresh water from Chapultepec, the barrier (albarrada) separating the salty and freshwater lakes, as well as human sacrifices in the central plaza, and the system of surrounding cities on the banks of the lake.
Lienzo de Quauquechollan (ca. 1530). The figures to the left, under the Habsburg emblem, are embracing in a military alliance. The two headed eagle has been transformed into two eagles, one indigenous, holding a native sword in its talons, another Spanish holding a European steel sword. The paths in the right represent the military campaign, starting in the Huaquechula area in modern Puebla, Mexico, ending in Guatemala. A digital reconstruction of the Lienzo is available at the Universidad Francisco Marroquin.
Codex Mexicanus. BNF. The rapid sequence of events develops at the top, with the arrival of a Spanish ship to the coast, gifts given to Cortes in a posture denoting his lordship, a hanged Moctezuma, an armored soldier with a flag and the burning of the temple in defeat, accompanied by the smallpox epidemic, leading to more fighting against the Chalca. Int he bottom tributes are accounted and Texcoco lords continue their lineage.
The map of Mexico City in the 1550s, produced by indigenous scholars in Tlatelolco, kept in the University of Uppsala. The surrounding towns of the Valley of Mexico are connected by a dense network of roads, traversed by indigenous peoples depicted in all sorts of economic activities. Two Spaces are privileged in the description of this detailed geography, the Tlatelolco convent and square, and the first mission of of Vasco de Quiroga in Santa Fe. The map also shows Mexico City with detailed depictions of the blocks and specific buildings.
Painting of the Governor, Mayors and Rulers of Mexico (Codice Osuna) https://www.wdl.org/en/item/7324/ The four neighborhoods of Mexico City are depicted at the top, with the Tecpan house of Mexico showing the characteristic frieze. At the bottom the indigenous lord Don Esteban de Guzman and the Vicerroy, Don Luis de Velasco sit in their respective chairs, one in the indigenous Icpalli, the other one in a European seat.

Further reading:

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Mexicano orgulloso, migrante renuente. Economista ITAM y Politólogo Duke. Senior Fellow en CDDRL y Director Centro Estudios Latinoamericanos Stanford University

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Alberto Diaz-Cayeros

Alberto Diaz-Cayeros

Mexicano orgulloso, migrante renuente. Economista ITAM y Politólogo Duke. Senior Fellow en CDDRL y Director Centro Estudios Latinoamericanos Stanford University

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